By now you’ve probably heard of COVID-19,
or coronavirus disease discovered in 2019, which is responsible for a global pandemic.
Thus far the main country affected has been China, but it has spread to a number of other
countries around the world to a varying degree. The virus was initially referred to as the
2019-nCoV, or the 2019 novel coronavirus and was informally called “Wuhan coronavirus”.
The World Health Organization named the disease COVID-19 because it doesn’t refer to a geographical
location, an animal, a person or group of people – all of which can lead to stigma.
They also wanted to make it pronounceable and related to the disease – not an easy task!
The virus was officially named SARS CoV-2, or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus
2, because it’s genetically very similar to the SARS coronavirus which was responsible
for…well the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS, outbreak in 2002. So SARS-CoV-2 causes
COVID-19. Now, coronaviruses that circulate among humans
are typically benign, and they cause about a quarter of all common cold illnesses. But
occasionally, coronaviruses that circulate in an animal reservoir mutate just enough
to where they’re able to start infecting and causing disease in humans, if they’re
given an opportunity. In 2002 SARS was a coronavirus that hopped over from bats to civets, which
is a cat-like mammal; and then over to humans. And in 2012, there was MERS, which was a coronavirus
that hopped over from bats to camels a few decades ago and then circulated among camels
for quite some time before infecting humans. COVID-19 most likely also started with bats,
but this time the intermediate host was probably a pangolin, an animal that looks like a cross
between an anteater and an armadillo. That’s based on the fact that scientists identified
a coronavirus in pangolins that’s a 96% genetic match to SARS-CoV-2. Sadly, pangolins
are heavily trafficked around the planet, largely because people believe that their
scales have healing properties. Because they’re moved around the world rather than left in
the wild, there are ample opportunities for a coronavirus to go from a pangolin to a human. As of February 11, 2020, there have been 43,103
cases of COVID-19 and 1,018 deaths, with a fatality rate of 2.4%, according to WHO. The
vast majority of cases and deaths have occurred in China. For some perspective, the 2002 SARS
outbreak resulted in 8,098 cases and 774 deaths, so the fatality rate was around 9.6%. And
the 2012 MERS outbreak results in 2,494 cases and 858 deaths, bringing the fatality rate
to 34%. Finally, for the 2014 Ebola outbreak, which was not due to a coronavirus, there
were 28,639 cases and 11,316 deaths. The fatality rate was a whooping 40%! At a microscopic level, coronaviruses are
single strand positive sense RNA viruses with protein spikes on their surface that look
a bit like a crown under a microscope. In fact, “corona” is latin for crown. Besides
looking majestic, these spikes allow the virus to invade cells lining the respiratory tract
and lungs. After binding, the coronavirus enters and takes over the cellular machinery
to make more and more copies of itself so it can spread to the surrounding cells and
get into the mucus. Sometimes the infection is mild, and some
people don’t develop any symptoms at all. For others, they can develop symptoms that
can range from mild symptoms like fever, cough, and shortness of breath, all the way to serious
problems like pneumonia. Severe lung damage can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome,
or ARDS, which occurs when the lung inflammation is so severe that fluid builds up around and
within the lungs. The severe infection can cause septic shock, which happens when the
blood pressure falls dramatically and the body’s organs are starved for oxygen. ARDS
and shock are the main cause of death for people with the infection, and this is more
likely to occur in those over the age of 60, smokers, and people with previous medical
conditions like hypertension. In addition to causing disease, coronaviruses
can spread quickly. Usually the virus spreads when people cough or sneeze, and tiny droplets
containing the virus are released. These droplets can land on another person’s mouth, nose,
or eyes, and that allows the virus to enter a new person. Virus can also be found in a
person’s stool, and in rare situations coronavirus has been transmitted from one apartment to
another within a residential building. This was seen in the 2002 SARS epidemic. At that
time, faulty plumbing allowed virus-containing fecal matter originating from one person’s
apartment to drift from drainage pipes back up into fixtures like sinks and toilets within
other apartments in the same building. This created a terrible smell and allowed the virus-containing
droplets to deposit on bathroom surfaces, ultimately causing people in those apartments
to get ill. Something similar may have happened with COVID-19, and this is being actively
investigated. Once a person is infected, symptoms develop
an average of 5 days later. This is called the incubation period. However the incubation
period varies from person to person, and in some studies, the incubation period lasted
as long as 24 days! Now there’s debate about whether or not asymptomatic people can spread
the disease, because these people typically have low levels of circulating virus. But
even if they do, asymptomatic transmission likely plays a minor role in the overall epidemic.
Viruses are given a reproductive number or R-naught based on how quickly they spread,
and person to person transmission has been confirmed both in and outside of China. An
R naught of 1 means that an infected person passes it on to 1 new person, an R-naught
of 2 means that 1 person spreads it to 2 new people, and so forth. If the R naught is below
1, the infection peters out, if it’s 1 it stays steady, and if it’s above 1, then
it continues to spread. The current estimate for the SARS-CoV-2 R naught is between 2 and
2.5. Of course that’s an average, with some spreading the disease less, and others – called
superspreaders – spreading the disease at a much much higher rate. The exact cause of
these superspreaders is unclear, perhaps they are just in contact with more folks, perhaps
their bodies naturally shed more virus, or perhaps there’s some other reason altogether. To confirm the diagnosis, there should be
a real time polymerase chain reaction or rt-PCR tests, a quick test used in many labs and
hospitals that can detect very small amounts of viral RNA. Treatment is focused on supportive care – providing
fluids, oxygen, and ventilatory support for really ill people. There’s also some early
data showing that three medications are highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory
setting. These medications are chloroquine, an anti-malarial drug; ritonavir, an anti-HIV
medication; and remdesivir, an antiviral drug previously used against Ebola. Remdesivir
was given to the first US patient with COVID-19 on day 11 of his illness as he was clinically
worsening, and he began to improve the very next day. Large scale clinical trials using
remdesivir are already underway in China. Unfortunately there’s no vaccine currently
available to protect against COVID-19. At best, it looks like a vaccine will be many
months away. So the goal is to avoid human to human transmission, starting with isolating
people with COVID-19. Coronaviruses don’t usually spread over long distances in the
air, but they can travel roughly 3 feet or 1 meter from one person to another on tiny
droplets of saliva, which are produced when someone’s coughing or sneezing. In addition,
some strains of coronavirus can survive on surfaces for over a day. With that in mind,
if you’re a healthy person living in a non-outbreak area, the recommendation is to avoid travel
to disease outbreak areas, generally stay away from crowded places, and stay at least
6 feet or 2 meters away from anyone with symptoms. Wearing a surgical mask is not recommended
because the general risk of getting COVID-19 in these settings is so low. As always, careful
hand washing is key and it should be done with soap or alcohol-based hand sanitizers
and scrubbing. Also, avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth—this is the area, known
as your T-zone is a common entry point for viruses into the body. For healthcare workers who are around people
with COVID-19, the recommendation is to apply droplet and contact precautions. That includes
wearing personal protective equipment like a clean, dry surgical mask, gloves, long-sleeved
gowns, and eye protection like goggles or a face shield. When performing a procedure
that generates aerosol, like tracheal intubation, bronchoscopy, CPR, or noninvasive ventilation,
it’s important to wear a N95 respirator. This prevents 95% of the small particles,
like respiratory droplets, from passing through. To recap, the SARS-CoV-2 virus causes a respiratory
disease called COVID-19. The virus probably originated from bats, then went to pangolins
as an intermediate host, and finally to humans. The virus travels in respiratory droplets
and enters the body via the mouth, nose, or eyes. Once inside the body, it replicates
in the respiratory system, causing symptoms like fever, cough, and shortness of breath.
Some people might develop more dangerous complications like pneumonia, ARDS, and shock. Treatments
are focused on supportive care, but certain medications like Remdesivir are currently
in clinical trials. In the meantime, the best strategy is prevention — this includes careful
hand washing, avoiding traveling to disease outbreak areas and crowded places when possible,
avoiding touching your T-zone, and if you’re a healthcare worker to use personal protective
equipment.

100 thoughts on “COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 19) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology”

  1. Sorry to say this, but it is divine punishment for people who consume unnatural food like dogs, cats, rats, bats. No people in the history of the human race have consumed such food. Let this be a message that please, stop this cruelty to pet animals.
    Jackson, MS
    USA

  2. No SARS was leaked from a Chinese lab. Just more miss information. My baby us sick and goes to day care with foreigners who traveled and I canโ€™t even find any info on actual symptoms. Thanks for censorship you tube and mainstream media. These lives are on you and when you meet God. Not me!

  3. Can someone differentiate the difference between flu like symptoms vs. specific COVID symptoms. Reason it is flu season here and and it is allergy season – coughs, rhinitis, and other flu like symptoms can mask or mimic a flu – and worse.. we don't know if it is a flu or COVID 19. So… please post what are specific types of COVID 19 flu symptoms. I had received this from a friend of mine but cannot confirm the veracity: I would love to know. FYI I live in Asia.. and degrees are celsius
    A Forwarded message:

    Classmate's nephew, graduated with a master's degree, and works in Shenzhen Hospital. He is being transferred to Wuhan to study the new pneumonia virus. He just called and asked me to tell all my relatives and friends that if a runny nose and sputum occur during a cold, it cannot be concluded that it is new-type coronavirus pneumonia. Because coronavirus pneumonia is a dry cough without runny nose, this is the simplest way to identify it. He also informed that the new type of coronary pneumonia virus is not heat-resistant and will be killed in an environment of 26-27 degrees. Therefore, drink plenty of hot water to prevent the virus. As long as the body maintains heat, eat more ginger and do more Exercise, you will not be infected with the virus. If you have a high fever, cover yourself with the quilt and drink ginger soup to increase the body's heat energy without the need for a vaccine. Eating more ginger, garlic pepper, and pepper can solve it; eat less sweet, sour, and salty, and don't go to cold weather areas. The virus will disappear completely when exposed to the sun.
    Everyone can share it and help one anot

  4. In Hk , doctors recommend us to wear surgical masks to prevent silent patient who got affected without self notised without showing any symptoms

  5. You donโ€™t want to kill all the bats . They eat mosquitoes and help decrease things like malaria & West Nile too. And what if you donโ€™t eat meat, but say you get bit or stung by a mosquito or fly that landed on or bit or sucked the blood of a bat or armadillo, aardvark or pangolin? Then are you now infected? Hand peeling and eating grapefruit and oranges will build up your immunity to fight it off also puts Vitamin C into your fingernails & cuticles. Apples and pears are also natural antihistamines. Onion & garlic are good fighters as well as mushrooms ๐Ÿ„ & cauliflower ๐ŸŒธ ๐ŸฆŸ๐Ÿฆ‡๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿฆ”๐Ÿฆก๐Ÿฆ ๐Ÿงผ๐ŸŠ๐Ÿ๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ‹๐Ÿฅ—๐Ÿ‡๐Ÿ’•

  6. China is lying about the number of people recovering from the virus. Less than 10% get healthy and recovers . Look at the numbers in South Korea!

  7. Quick question
    (I donโ€™t know anything about medicine or anatomy)
    If the coronavirus has protein spikes on their surface to bind, could it be possible to make something, so the COVID-19 canโ€™t bind.
    Maybe like how caffeine works in the brain…?

  8. Okay so I work at a wastewater treatment plant. We treat residential and sewer water. Are we at a similar elevated risk of exposure as those in a healthcare field? Im wearing a mask and my co workers think im a crazy person. Am I being unreasonable here?

  9. This video should be on TV I have learnt more from this video than anything I have read or watched on tv

  10. This post offers very good advice re: handling Coronavirus.

    From James Robb, MD FCAP. There is some good advice I had not seen in here, re: zinc lozenges, for instance.

    Good luck everybody!

    Date: February 26, 2020 at 2:35:50 PM EST
    Subject: What I am doing for the upcoming COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic

    Dear Colleagues,
    As some of you may recall, when I was a professor of pathology at the University of California San Diego, I was one of the first molecular virologists in the world to work on coronaviruses (the 1970s). I was the first to demonstrate the number of genes the virus contained. Since then, I have kept up with the coronavirus field and its multiple clinical transfers into the human population (e.g., SARS, MERS), from different animal sources.

    The current projections for its expansion in the US are only probable, due to continued insufficient worldwide data, but it is most likely to be widespread in the US by mid to late March and April.
    Here is what I have done and the precautions that I take and will take. These are the same precautions I currently use during our influenza seasons, except for the mask and gloves.:

    1) NO HANDSHAKING! Use a fist bump, slight bow, elbow bump, etc.

    2) Use ONLY your knuckle to touch light switches. elevator buttons, etc.. Lift the gasoline dispenser with a paper towel or use a disposable glove.

    3) Open doors with your closed fist or hip – do not grasp the handle with your hand, unless there is no other way to open the door. Especially important on bathroom and post office/commercial doors.

    4) Use disinfectant wipes at the stores when they are available, including wiping the handle and child seat in grocery carts.

    5) Wash your hands with soap for 10-20 seconds and/or use a greater than 60% alcohol-based hand sanitizer whenever you return home from ANY activity that involves locations where other people have been.

    6) Keep a bottle of sanitizer available at each of your home's entrances. AND in your car for use after getting gas or touching other contaminated objects when you can't immediately wash your hands.

    7) If possible, cough or sneeze into a disposable tissue and discard. Use your elbow only if you have to. The clothing on your elbow will contain infectious virus that can be passed on for up to a week or more!

    What I have stocked in preparation for the pandemic spread to the US:

    1) Latex or nitrile latex disposable gloves for use when going shopping, using the gasoline pump, and all other outside activity when you come in contact with contaminated areas.

    Note: This virus is spread in large droplets by coughing and sneezing. This means that the air will not infect you! BUT all the surfaces where these droplets land are infectious for about a week on average – everything that is associated with infected people will be contaminated and potentially infectious. The virus is on surfaces and you will not be infected unless your unprotected face is directly coughed or sneezed upon.

    This virus only has cell receptors for lung cells (it only infects your lungs) The only way for the virus to infect you is through your nose or mouth via your hands or an infected cough or sneeze onto or into your nose or mouth.

    2) Stock up now with disposable surgical masks and use them to prevent you from touching your nose and/or mouth (We touch our nose/mouth 90X/day without knowing it!). This is the only way this virus can infect you – it is lung-specific. The mask will not prevent the virus in a direct sneeze from getting into your nose or mouth – it is only to keep you from touching your nose or mouth.

    3) Stock up now with hand sanitizers and latex/nitrile gloves (get the appropriate sizes for your family). The hand sanitizers must be alcohol-based and greater than 60% alcohol to be effective.

    4) Stock up now with zinc lozenges. These lozenges have been proven to be effective in blocking coronavirus (and most other viruses) from multiplying in your throat and nasopharynx. Use as directed several times each day when you begin to feel ANY "cold-like" symptoms beginning. It is best to lie down and let the lozenge dissolve in the back of your throat and nasopharynx. Cold-Eeze lozenges is one brand available, but there are other brands available.

    I, as many others do, hope that this pandemic will be reasonably contained, BUT I personally do not think it will be. Humans have never seen this snake-associated virus before and have no internal defense against it.

    Tremendous worldwide efforts are being made to understand the molecular and clinical virology of this virus. Unbelievable molecular knowledge about the genomics, structure, and virulence of this virus has already been achieved. BUT, there will be NO drugs or vaccines available this year to protect us or limit the infection within us. Only symptomatic support is available.
    I hope these personal thoughts will be helpful during this potentially catastrophic pandemic. You are welcome to share.

    Good luck to all of us!
    James Robb, MD FCAP

  11. The reason it responds to AIDS and Ebola medicines is because it was engineered from those diseases amongst other things

  12. Masks reduce risks of infection because they block droplets from infected, asymptomatic, talking mouths. Aerosols float in air and infect those in closed, badly ventilated areas, e.g. offices with no windows, live houses, cinemas, elevators etc

  13. Hmm royal family comes under attack for its pedophile ways . A perfect storm in a tea cup happens. Everyone distracted yet? You have more chance of winning the lottery than being killed by a minor flu. COVERT 19

  14. A very informative enlightening video. During SARS outbreak, it was said that the virus cannot survive temperatures above 28 degrees celsius. Is it the same with this COVID-19?

  15. karma's a bitch isn't it!! how the fuck do they think an animals skin has healing powers !! wtf is wrong with people!!

  16. We have to thank WHO and China they are working hard for humanity . The world wil save by China once again because China is no.1 and powerful and top of the world. we all love China

  17. As a fellow healthcare professional, you have my greatest respect for dedicating your video to Dr. Li Wenliang… brought tears to my eyes to see that. Keep up the good work.

  18. Beautiful dedication at the end! Thank you so much for that. That Doctor touched my heart.
    May he Rest In Peace & honour.

  19. I registered nurse of 33 years in Kentucky they're giving us no such equipment this is going to pass very rapidly and hospitals long-term care facilities doctors offices I haven't jumped ship yet if I think that starting to hit the fan that's what I fully intend to do me and my family will stay in our home till it burns its way out I'm sure I'm going to hear somebody saying I have a duty to go in there and put my head on the chopping block.

  20. And this is why asians stop eating bats bruh I hope I donโ€™t have it lately I was having allergies but now my Iโ€™m having soar throat and blood coming from my mucus

  21. READ ALL๐Ÿ‘‡๐Ÿป๐Ÿ‘‡๐Ÿป๐Ÿ‘‡๐Ÿป๐Ÿ‘‡๐Ÿป๐Ÿ‘‡๐Ÿป

    Hoping that all of your videos are correct and accurate , Just wanna say that NEVER PASS A STATEMENT UNTIL YOU ARE A TRILLION PERCENT SURE THAT IS TOTALLY RIGHT AND IS NOT FALSE , because people r gonna share the knowledge they get from such videos IF incase it is proven wrong then only bloody u r responsiblr for that SO never mention something until ur a zillion percent sure that is correct.
    For now am not saying that ure informations r wrong but there r people like me who r intelligent and brave and all they do not believe something until is proven to be right .
    Hope u got my points…
    Good luck for the future…

  22. The Wuhan virus is proven a long time ago to be man made, genetically modified in a lab. Don't believe this attempted misinfo. And Epstein didn't kill himself.

  23. i did click the like button, when i saw the DR. Li Wenliang. hope he rest in the paradise! hope chinese unhuman goverenment changed!

  24. We've just had the first confirmed cases in East Africa (Kenya), people tend to exaggerate a lot over here, so I am thankful for some reliable information.
    Great video, thanks a lot.

  25. For the first time i have seen such a great informative video… Thanks for sharing such a great message and knowledge without any cost… Thank you very much Sir

  26. Well I guess we should start wiping out all the bats on the planet LOL to prove it any more of these coronavirus has

  27. Comes from bats my arse. Try looking in the bio lab in Wuhan. Interestingly, in 1981 Dean R Koontz wrote a book called eyes of darkness. In that 'fictionnal' story he writes about a pandemic called Wuhan 400 that hits the world in 2020. Agenda 21 states a reduction from 7 billion world population to 1 billion. But shhhhhh……lets blame the bats yeh!!๐Ÿ‘

  28. Covid 19 is a virus associated with pollution, it develops alarmingly in heavily polluted air environments, there is more to see the map. I think scientists already know. The OPEC countries ran out of bargain. The era of renewable energy is starting seriously is the only solution to stop this.

  29. Those who know like the American Beamray Society (from 1980's ) promoted Prof Rifes sound frequency cancer and decease and virus zapper machine. The use of this technology has been held back presumably greedy pharmaceutical companies who know introducing healing sound frequency to patients would make their profits fall. It been a big scandal. Rife's machines can eradicate the virus. He has cine film (that's how old the tech is) to prove his findings and the other name for this tech is Hi~Fu.

  30. I firm believe that the virus is a Karma towards humans who abused, killed, trafficked, and ate those harmless and innocent Animals.

  31. If they named it covid-19 so that it doesn't cause stigma, why did they confirm the MERS name ? Isn't that a stigma for middle eastern?!

  32. Our immune systems decides if we get infected and if we develop symptoms. Not everybody gets infected with Corona or other viruses. My focus is on strengthening the immune system with natural Vit. C from acerola, pomegranate juice, blueberries, polyphenols, propolis, L-Lysine, Magnesium bisglycinate, etc. and taking active charcoal, humic acid, aloe vera 100 % juice. No coffee, alcohol, nicotine, dairy, sugar, grains/rice/starches, soy or any in a factory produced food. You know, healthy is just the other stuff which is naturally grown ๐Ÿ˜‰ And if you don't change your diet and lifestyle … the next virus is just around the corner ๐Ÿ˜‰

  33. I might have had COVID-19 little less than a month ago, they never tested me so I don't know for sure but my symptoms were exactly what COVID-19 infected people are describing, to the point.
    I just wanted to say that (if that's what I had) I basically wanted to die for a week, but now I'm fine. Completely back to normal. To those of you that are worried and scared I just want to say that even if you get the infection, and even if you feel horrible for a while, the likelyhood of dying is very, very, very low. Especially if (like everybody's saying) you are young and healthy, but even those who are elderly or have other illnesses survive in many cases if they get proper medical care. The other day I saw a 98 year old being released from hospital, alive and happy. ๐Ÿ™‚ Hope, people! Hope!

    I'm just gonna add my symptoms if anyone is wondering or in doubt:
    – Fever
    – Persistant and painful cough
    – Shortness of breath, difficult to breath, rustling noises in airways due to mucus build-up
    – Chest pain
    – Headache
    – Body aches all over, muscles hurt, joints hurt, skin hurt to touch
    – Extreme fatigue and weakness, I could barely lift a water bottle to drink, couldn't get out of bed at all for about a week, struggled to stay awake or to talk to anybody, slept pretty much day and night
    – Mild nausea
    – Little bit of nose bleed in the end, probably due to irritation
    After getting better I still had some discomfort and occasional pain in my chest, mild cough and shortness of breath that was most noticable when walking or talking, but now close to a month later I feel 100% back to normal again. The worst part, or the "i feel like I'm dying" part, lasted for about a week where I was glued to my bed and had to ask my partner to do everything for me. And if someone's wondering, yes my partner fell ill shortly after but only with very mild respiratory symptoms that can be described as a mild form of the common cold. I don't know if he got it from me or from someone else, that's unclear. We didn't have close contact while I was ill but we were in the same room for short periods of time.
    After I got better and went back to school my teacher (who never gets sick) fell ill a few days later and was gone for longer than expected, and I was directly confirmed by a nurse as "probable source of transmission" although nobody ran any tests and my teacher is also back to normal now. They really should be testing everybody with symptoms to find all cases. It is possible that I had this new coronavirus and that my teacher got it from me, in that case we're among other unconfirmed cases and unfortunate sources of transmission that is not being recorded which makes it even more difficult to track the spreading of this virus.

  34. How many of the identified cases of COVID-19 Who travelled on a visa attended a VFS Global Bio-Metric data collection centre in Asia? These centres are a serious risk for the contamination and transmission of the virus. Over 1000 people attend these centres daily to record visa applicant's bio metric data, (Akin to an airport lounge, check-in desk or a cruise liner) These centres are outdated and unnecessary as most applicants hold an e-passport where this information is already recorded. Overcrowding, lifts, waiting rooms, document handling and the finger print scanners are all threats of transmitting the decease. It is incumbent on government to review these centres and close them down under the circumstances. All documents can be submitted online including identity verification,

  35. Out dated information. Currently Over 100000 at 3.4% higher than SARS Google YouTube DR John Campbell

  36. Wuhan coronavirus is a biologic weapon made by China P4 lab. the infected rate is very high and can course permanent damage in lung tissues.

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