Primary mitochondrial myopathy is a rare genetic disorder that occurs when there are mutated mitochondria in muscle cells, especially skeletal muscle cells. These mitochondria are unable to generate adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which is a form of energy used by our cells. As a result, muscle cells, which require a… Continue Reading Primary mitochondrial myopathy – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

With Fragile X syndrome, sometimes just called Fragile X, the “X” refers to the X chromosome, where the disease gene is located. The “fragile” refers to the fact that under a microscope, the X chromosome looks fragile or broken at the site of the mutation. That’s because the chromatin which… Continue Reading Fragile X Syndrome – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Friedreich’s ataxia is a disorder where there’s a buildup of iron that damages various organ systems – in particular, the nervous system gets damaged which causes ataxia, which is when the muscles don’t move in a coordinated way. The disorder also affects some internal organs like the heart and pancreas.… Continue Reading Friedreich’s ataxia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

If you’re female between the ages of forty-five to fifty five you’re probably moving through menopause. You know the signs – weight gain, moodiness, trouble focusing, less hair on your head and more on your face, hot flashes and night sweats.    Decrease in circulation of estrogen also puts you… Continue Reading Bryce Wylde on Natural Menopause Treatments for Hot Flashes and Night Sweats

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! With X-linked agammaglobulinemia, or XLA for short, gamma globulin is another name for immunoglobulin,… Continue Reading X-linked agammaglobulinemia- causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

This is the flexible wrap that uses infrared light to relieve back pain. Integrated LEDs generate deep penetrating far infrared light to improve circulation, relieve swelling, and sooth muscles. A flexible strap allows the wrap to be worn on the back, knee, shoulder, arm, or leg. And adjusts easily to… Continue Reading The Infrared Pain Relieving Wrap

Protein C and S are two anticoagulation proteins that inactivate coagulation factors Va and VIIIa in the coagulation cascade. This means they act like brakes on coagulation, limiting clot formation and preventing clots from growing too big. So when either of these proteins is deficient, it leads to a hypercoagulable… Continue Reading Protein C and S deficiency – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

With adrenoleukodystrophy, sometimes called ALD, adreno- refers to the adrenal glands, while -leuko-, means white, and -dystrophy refers to tissue degradation. So, adrenoleukodystrophy is a rare genetic condition, caused by a mutation in the ABCD1 gene, located in the X-chromosome, that leads to the progressive loss of white matter in… Continue Reading Adrenoleukodystrophy – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders, or PTLDs, are uncontrolled growths of cells called lymphocytes that may occur in transplant recipients after receiving a solid organ, such as a kidney or a lung, or stem cells. Transplant recipients require medications to suppress their immune systems which may contribute to the development of a… Continue Reading Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Guillain-Barré syndrome is named after two neurologists- Georges Guillain and Jean Barré, and it’s a demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system, which includes all of the neurons that extend beyond the brain and the spinal cord. Guillain-Barré, or GBS for short, is also called acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Neurons… Continue Reading Guillain-Barre Syndrome – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology