Brown-Sequard syndrome, first described by the physiologist Charles-Edouard Brown-Sequard, is a condition associated with hemisection or damage to one half of the spinal cord. The hemisection damages neural tracts in the spinal cord that carry information to and from the brain. This results in a loss of sensations like pain,… Continue Reading Brown-Séquard syndrome – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Glaucoma is actually a group of of eye diseases that are usually due to… Continue Reading Glaucoma (open-angle, closed-angle, and normal-tension) – pathology, diagnosis, treatment

Say it’s your first day at a new job. Maybe you’re nervous or jittery. You want to make a good impression. Those feelings are pretty normal, and may actually help you be more alert and careful. But after a few weeks, once you’re used to the job, and you know… Continue Reading Social Anxiety Disorder – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder which causes irregular breathing and snoring patterns that can ultimately cause apnea, which is where a person momentarily stops breathing altogether. The inability to get restful sleep can also lead to severe exhaustion. Individuals can have obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, or features… Continue Reading Sleep apnea – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Myelodysplastic syndromes, or MDS, are a group of rare blood disorders associated with faulty development of blood cells in the bone marrow. MDS can affect individuals of all ages, but it’s more common after the age of 60. Blood cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells, through a process called hematopoiesis.… Continue Reading Myelodysplastic syndromes – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Gallstones are hard stones found in the gallbladder, and gallstone ileus is when a gallstone becomes lodged in the small bowel. Risk factors for developing gallstones include things like female sex, obesity, pregnancy, and age, sometimes remembered by the 4 F’s—female, fat, fertile, and forty. Sometimes those gallstones can get… Continue Reading Gallstone ileus – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Gallstones are hard stones found in the gallbladder, and gallstone ileus is when a gallstone becomes lodged in the small bowel. Risk factors for developing gallstones include things like female sex, obesity, pregnancy, and age, sometimes remembered by the 4 F’s—female, fat, fertile, and forty. Sometimes those gallstones can get… Continue Reading Gallstone ileus – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Having a hypersensitivity means that someone’s immune system has reacted to something in such a way that it ends up damaging them, as opposed to protecting them. There are four different types of hypersensitivities, and in the fourth type or type 4, the reactions are caused by T lymphocytes, or… Continue Reading Type IV hypersensitivity (cell-mediated) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology

Maybe you’ve heard the term “bipolar” used to describe someone who’s moody, or who has mood swings, but this colloquial use of the term is really different from bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder, which used to be called manic depression, is a serious mental illness that causes a person to have… Continue Reading Bipolar disorder (depression & mania) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology