The term “spina bifida” comes from the latin “split spine,” which is actually a pretty good description, because spina bifida is a birth defect where the tissue on the left and right side of the back that normally come over the spinal cord to protect it, don’t completely meet up… Continue Reading Spina bifida (myelomeningocele, meningocele, occulta) – causes, symptoms, treatment

Cushing syndrome, named after the famous neurosurgeon, Harvey Cushing who first described it, is an endocrine disorder with elevated cortisol levels in the blood. In some cases, Cushing syndrome results from a pituitary adenoma making excess ACTH, and in those situations it’s called Cushing disease. Normally, the hypothalamus, which is… Continue Reading Cushing Syndrome – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

With hyperphosphatemia, hyper- means over, -phosphat- refers to phosphate, and -emia refers to the blood, so hyperphosphatemia means having a high phosphate level in the blood, typically above 4.5 mg/dL. Now, phosphate is made up of one central phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement, kind… Continue Reading Hyperphosphatemia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Aphthous ulcers, often called canker sores, are painful inflammatory lesions or spots on the inside of the mouth. Most often, people develop minor aphthous ulcers, which is where the lesions are a few millimeters across, round or oval in shape, and disappear within a week. There are also two other… Continue Reading Aphthous ulcers (canker sores) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Hyper IgM syndrome is a problem where B cells are unable to undergo antibody class-switching, meaning that they can produce IgM antibodies, or immunoglobulins, but struggle to produce other types of antibodies, and that leaves individuals at risk for certain infections. Let’s take a look at how B cells end… Continue Reading Hyper IgM Syndrome – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

With pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, neuroendocrine refers to pancreatic cells which release hormones in response to signals from the nerves, and neoplasm refers to a cancer. So, pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm is a cancer of neuroendocrine cells that are within the pancreas. They can also be called pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, or just… Continue Reading Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms- causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Peptic refers to the stomach, and an ulcer is a sore or break in… Continue Reading Peptic ulcer disease – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Malaria is an infection that can be caused by a few different types of Plasmodium species, which are single-celled parasites that get spread around by mosquitoes. Once the plasmodium gets into the bloodstream, it starts to infect and destroy mainly liver cells and red blood cells, which causes a variety… Continue Reading Malaria – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

In amyloidosis, “amyloid” refers to starch-like, and it goes back to an observation made by the German scientist Rudolf Virchow, who saw mysterious deposits in the tissue that stained blue with iodine, just like plant starch. As it turns out, amyloids are actually just proteins that take on an abnormal… Continue Reading Amyloidosis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

It’s becoming more and more common to see things like “gluten-free pizza” or “gluten-free buns” at restaurants, grocery stores, or other food-based businesses. This is partly because there’s this increasing recognition, awareness and diagnosis of a disease called celiac disease, sometimes called celiac sprue, and as many as 1 in… Continue Reading Celiac disease – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology