Humans know the surprising prick of a needle, the searing pain of a stubbed toe, and the throbbing of a toothache. We can identify many types of pain and have multiple ways of treating it. But what about other species? How do the animals all around us experience pain? It’s… Continue Reading How do animals experience pain? – Robyn J. Crook

Translator: Ido Dekkers Reviewer: Ariana Bleau Lugo Say you’re at the beach, and you get sand in your eyes. How do you know the sand is there? You obviously can’t see it, but if you are a normal, healthy human, you can feel it, that sensation of extreme discomfort, also… Continue Reading How Do Pain Relievers Work? – George Zaidan

Translator: Jessica Ruby Reviewer: Caroline Cristal Let’s say that it would take you ten minutes to solve this puzzle. How long would it take if you received constant electric shocks to your hands? Longer, right? Because the pain would distract you from the task. Well, maybe not; it depends on… Continue Reading How does your brain respond to pain? – Karen D. Davis

Cigarettes aren’t good for us. That’s hardly news–we’ve known about the dangers of smoking for decades. But how exactly do cigarettes harm us? Let’s look at what happens as their ingredients make their way through our bodies, and how we benefit physically when we finally give up smoking. With each… Continue Reading How do cigarettes affect the body? – Krishna Sudhir

Translator: tom carter Reviewer: Bedirhan Cinar The universe contains about 100 billion galaxies. Each of those galaxies contains about 100 billion stars. Many of those stars have planets orbiting them. So how do we look for life in all that immensity? It’s like searching for a needle in trillions of… Continue Reading A needle in countless haystacks: Finding habitable worlds – Ariel Anbar

A pungent blend of onions, cheese, and cat urine with hints of… is that…wet goat? Most of us don’t need more than one whiff to identify that generally unpleasant, characteristic smell we call body odor. But it’s a surprisingly complex phenomenon influenced by our genetic makeup, age, diet, and hygiene.… Continue Reading What causes body odor? – Mel Rosenberg

In 1995, the British Medical Journal published an astonishing report about a 29-year-old builder. He accidentally jumped onto a 15-centimeter nail, which pierced straight through his steel-toed boot. He was in such agonizing pain that even the smallest movement was unbearable. But when the doctors took off his boot, they… Continue Reading The mysterious science of pain – Joshua W. Pate

Some of the issues that are important if you want to have people in space for long periods of time. One is that people will tend to lose bone and muscle mass. We know this. If you have to put a cast on your leg, and you take the cast… Continue Reading Gravity and the human body – Jay Buckey

[Music] I’m a pediatrician and an anesthesiologist so I put children to sleep for a living and I’m an academic so I put audiences to sleep for free but what I actually mostly do is I manage the pain management service at the Packard Children’s Hospital up at Stanford in… Continue Reading The mystery of chronic pain – Elliot Krane

Picture warm, gooey cookies, crunchy candies, velvety cakes, waffle cones piled high with ice cream. Is your mouth watering? Are you craving dessert? Why? What happens in the brain that makes sugary foods so hard to resist? Sugar is a general term used to describe a class of molecules called… Continue Reading How sugar affects the brain – Nicole Avena